Jaensirisak – Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand

Sermsak Pongmesa- Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Chiang Mai, Thailand


This paper presents the possibility of using Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and road pricing policies to reduce private vehicle use in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The assessment is made in terms of level of effectiveness of the integrated policies to shift the use of private vehicles to BRT. Habitual behaviour and captive attitude of private vehicle users were observed. A total of 1,200 private vehicle users (car and motorcycle), was randomly surveyed by a Stated Preference (SP) exercise and attitudinal questionnaire. Two situations were designed including: (1) development of Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system alone, and (2) development of BRT system with road pricing. The factor analysis was used to classify habitual behaviour and captive attitude, while Logit model was used to analyse the effects of the BRT and road pricing. The study found that most private vehicle users believed that private vehicles were important for their daily lives and would still be essential even if a comprehensive public transport system had been implemented. They felt that using private vehicles had great benefit and they had intention of using private vehicles even for short distances. The study also showed that utilising BRT system development together with road pricing is more effective than BRT system development alone. Therefore, improvement of BRT system would be more effective if it is integrated with restraint measures (e.g. road pricing) that can reduce habitual behaviour and captive attitude.